4

ABC, NBC, Comcast and others all have their own specs. What I've found is that 1080 progressive MP4 (h.264) at 29.97 fps (some rare cases need 59.94), with audio between 192-256 Kbps, usually does the trick. You'd obviously edit in ProRes, but to submit that codec to the stations is overkill. Some outlets will even reject specs that don't conform exactly to ...


3

The reason for mastering out to an uncompressed / minimally lossy format is so that you have a master copy, which you can then use to make other copies, without generation loss, or having to re-render. You don't have to use Animation. There, I've said it. While it's mathematically lossless, it's only 8-bit, so swings ± roundabouts. While I used to only ever ...


3

Getting a file format that works for everyone is very complicated. However, if you are are trying for network news, it is safe to use MPEG-2 TS 1080i29.97 (CBS, NBC, CNN) or 720p59.94 (ABC, Fox) at CBR 50Mbps, 15/3 closed GOP. Audio should be 48kHz PCM. Local stations will accept MP4s, but you likely won't be happy with the results once it gets to air. The ...


2

Personally I use Pinnacle Studio to record the TV shows. I have used it to record over a 100 hours of TV footage till now and I'm pretty happy with it. What You Need TV Tuner Software to record. For the card you can buy Pinnacle TV Tuner (~ $70), but any compatible card will do. Many good cards are available for a lower price. Just make sure it has a ...


2

There are two key ways to deal with the inevitable latency of live video from the other side of the world: Ignore the video, at least for talent or guest queuing purposes. The person is fed mix-minus audio through their IFB. Since it is just audio, and historically was sent over a POTS telephone line, it can have virtually unnoticeable latency to the viewer....


2

There are three different things that get called "broadcast safe": Colors gamut: You don't need to apply an NTSC broadcast safe filter, but you do want to make sure that your colors are all within gamut for the format you are using. If you use out of gamut colors, most of the time nothing happens. However, you run the risk of some very odd, very hard to ...


2

Depends on who you ask. Old traditional people who grew up back in the bad old analog days have the Safe Action Area and Safe Title Area embedded in their brains. But even as old analog TV receivers evolved, there was less and less danger of losing the periphery of the frame to overscan. With modern LCD, LED, plasma, whatever, TV screens, there is ZERO ...


2

You are correct that the chroma key is typically performed in the vision mixer/video switcher. In order to assist camera operators in framing shots around chroma keys (and other downstream effects like DVE moves, lower thirds, and over the shoulder graphics), professional studio cameras have one or more program returns that allow the vision mixer/technical ...


2

I don't know if it has an official name but could be classed as "ringing". Tube cameras would do it if you had any bright lights in the scene. 70's music videos are full of it. You don't mention any software, so I'll give a platform agnostic solution. This would probably be easier in a node based workflow, but I've included the AE names for things because ...


1

Before understanding the answer to this question, you need to understand analog video displays, usually called Cathode Ray Tube Televisions (CRT TVs), often shortened to just "CRTs" in casual speech. There are plenty of answers here on this site, and a more technical one on the CRT Wikipedia Page. Now, before answering the question, there were a ...


1

They didn't need tape if they were transmitting live. They simply sent the signals to a radio transmitter, or to tape for recording. This is how television and video worked for nearly 80 years before digital video came along. I'd suggest reading the Wikipedeia pages on Video and the History of Television as a starter.


1

I don't know where they have "TV motion" from as at least in my area we use 1/(2×fps) for TV too. Or higher for sports. 1/(2×fps) simply has a "natural" motion blur to it which is often used in cinema as it is often the best choise. A shutter slower than that has much more shutter, I describe it as dream like. A shutter faster than that often looks like a ...


1

Yes, you can broadcast more than one program service (channel) from a single location. This is fairly common. For analog over the air (NTSC), you can use combiners and a broadband antenna. (See, for example, Whitaker & Benson, 2000 chs. 15 & 16)* For any of the digital over the air or satellite delivery standards, multiplexing is part of the ...


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