From the online youtube videos

It was mentioned that the professional audio equipment was usually set at -18 dbfs while the home studio was usually set at -16 dbfs. However, the "momentary transient" could be as loud as 20 db fs than the rms level. Doesn't that mean the -18 dbfs or the -16 dbfs were almost certain to have the issue of clipping?

There's many videos online stated that the autio for DSLR camera should be set at -12 db(headroom).This does not seem to make much sense from the above introduction, and, also, how was the -12 db being calculated? since this only allow the range of the sound to be 10 times more powerful. Is there a specific calculation for that value?

Especially, in the music and the human sound can range from 20 dbpsl to 80 dbpsl. That's a lot of range than the (-10)-(-20) dbfs head room. In videoing opera, this needed to be considered since the singers can sing from very quite whisper to very loud high frequency vocal. How to calculate the optimal gain on the DSLR camera? (The usual "-12 db rule" probably would suffer from the clipping, rather, a range from 10 dbpsl to 90 dbpsl may be needed?)


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