On any given build of ffmpeg,
ffmpeg -encoders will list which encoders can be used for encoding video.
Of the encoders listed, how can I tell which ones use hardware acceleration?
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You can tell by the name.
If the encoder or decoder includes _qsv, then it's Intel Quick Sync.
If it contains nvenc or cuda, it's Nvidia
If it includes amf it's AMD AMF
For example, x264_qsv encodes H264 using Intel Quick Sync
(if all of the proper software is installed. Determining that is something that belongs in a different topic, and has probably already been answered).