I'm looking for automating video editing and rendering tasks on Linux. Is there a way I can use Nodejs to automate Adobe Premiere or After Effects on Linux?
There is no Linux version of Premiere or After Effects, so the short answer is no. If you are using a Linux machine and need to render an AE or Premiere project, the main solution is to ask someone with that software to render it for you. You can try rendering under WINE, which is a compatibility layer that tries to run Windows software on Linux, but that obviously won't be supported by Adobe, and I wouldn't invest effort in trying to get something that brittle to work.
So, what's your actual need? Your question mentions doing automation work, rather than just rendering. If you look into Linux native tools like Nuke for compositing instead of After Effects, most of them have extensive embedded Python API's which can be used for all sorts of automation tasks. If you need to start in Premiere for some reason, it may be practical to export an XMEML file, and read it using the open source OpenTimelineIO library, and create whatever sort of final project you want.
BlackMagic Davinci Resolve and Fusion run on both RHEL and Centos, and have Python2, 3 and LUA integrated for automation. The title of your question leads me to believe you're already using Adobe suite, but the body suggests otherwise. There's a free version of Resolve with most of the features of the full version, so it can't hurt to try. I honestly don't know if Linux is one of those limitations, but the full version of Resolve is only $300 for a lifetime license, so there's still not much risk.