Like the RAW format for photos which stores the exact image information that is of great use for post processing, are there any similar formats for video?
Yes there is but if you have to ask, you probably can't afford it :)
Digital video cameras for professional use can shoot in a RAW format with one file for each frame. The bandwidth required is enormous and requires fast hard drives or an output over a fiber-optic link. Pricing is several times that of a full-frame
There are actually quite a number of cameras now available or announecd for 2012 that will use Raw video formats. Some of them are not even very expensive. REDCode: used by RED cinema cameras ARRIRAW: used by Arri Alexa CinemaDNG: Blackmagic Design, Digital Bolex, Ikonoskop, Weisscam, Kinoraw S35, S16, and S8p Cineform: Kineraw
and more to come.