Is streaming video from one PC to a physical second PC with recording it there, without getting any frame drops, artefacts, basicly everything what the source video don't have, in todays world doable or is that even in the highend industry (that do that on daily basis) a well known thing that they have to control/manage?
Streaming video between internally networked systems has become the standard in the Video Production / Post Production professional environment.
There is a lot to read about this but the answer to your question is yes, it is possible in today's world. In fact, it's done every day in the broadcast industry. Everything changed since we've had the ability to stream SDI over IP, and nowadays, production companies with a good enough infrastructure can transmit and receive multiple streams of high quality video at very low latency.
It's a professional set-up that achieves this with every aspect thought through. Everything from your storage solution, to your LAN switch to your workstation (with a lot of technical knowhow in between).
Media in these environments are hosted by shared media storage systems which are literally built for purpose though, unlike one PC sharing/streaming media to another. So you may first want to look into workflows used by the broadcast industry and scale it down to something that's possible at home for a reasonable cost.