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I know this is doable because many higher-dollar televisions on the market today are able to take a 24fps input and smooth out the frames for an effective framerate up to 960fps (for Sony).

Would it be possible to take footage that was shot at 24fps and increase it, say, to 60fps? Surely there exists software which can do this.

I'm interested in increasing the framerate of the footage itself rather than relying on a display to smooth out the frames just for compatibility's sake.

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There are several methods for interpolating additional frames if you want to slow down footage beyond its original frame rate.

First: duplicating frames. Pros: very fast, easy. Cons: low quality, causes stuttering, even with fairly small decreases in playback speed.

Second: cross fading between neighbouring frames. Basically each frame is dissolved into the next one. This will work well for a lot of footage down to say 1/3 of the original speed, after that it gets a bit obvious. Pros: fast, relatively easy, lots of software does it. Cons: limited capability.

Third: using motion estimation algorithms to create frames from neighbouring frames. Basically you apply a morph between neighbouring frames, with some intelligent tracking of pixel motion to create realistic motion. Pros: very good results with some footage, even with large slow-down. Cons: compute intensive, so slow to render. Not many apps do it, especially free/cheap ones. Can cause weird and very obvious artefacts when the tracking goes wrong–in fact, I've rarely been able to get this to give satisfactory results with real-world footage. If you have simple movement against a plain background, e.g. green-screen footage, it can work really well, but for any complex scene you generally get all sorts of really obvious weirdness.

The final techniques is still under development, and will probably keep getting better. AI is looking very promising as a tool for this kind of thing, so we may see some quality gains soon.

P.S. I'd say that Sony claim about interpolating 24fps to 960fps is 99.999% marketing bullshit.

  • I don't think the OP wants to slow down their footage. It sounds like they don't like the film look and think a higher frame rate will give them the look they want. (But +99.999 about Sony's claim.) – Michael Liebman Mar 26 '18 at 20:34
  • Oh, I see. I'm pretty sure that TVs are just doing what the Maltese Cross shutter does in film projectors: they're just showing the same fram multiple times, to remove the flicker. – stib Mar 27 '18 at 0:49
  • @stib I'm not saying Sony claims to convert 24fps into 960... It's partly a marketing thing but they do look a lot smoother than 24fps. And I'm trying to make 24fps look like 60fps, not slow it down. I have plenty of hardware to render on, and all the time in the world. – Daniel Mar 27 '18 at 6:52
  • In that case the second method would probably work the best. – stib Mar 28 '18 at 20:49
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TV is rated in Hz...and most, even the ones listed above, only have an effective rate of 120Hz which is 120fps.

What most of these tvs do and what you might be able to get away with is the use of Time Interpolation...but I highly doubt you will get any software that will generate 2.5x additional frames per frame, for a full video, without some serious artifacts ruining the video.

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So I stumbled across this great little utility called butterflow. It works on all of the Big Three OS's, and seems to produce quality results. I'm running it right now on a 1080p24 copy of Star Wars VIII, and the only downside is that it seems to take a great deal of time.

I'll update with the quality of the results once it's done rendering (probably in the next few days) but here's the link:

https://github.com/dthpham/butterflow

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