Hitchcock used to do this to create the feeling of nausea.
If the "modern" camera does not have control over your body then yes you can.
Hold you camera to your eye, place one hand on the zoom ring of your lens, start turning the zoom ring while simultaneously you begin to walk/run backwards. A video dolly would be safer.
You can do this only if you are using a PAR-FOCAL zoom lens (or you have a "focus-puller" crew member running along side your camera).
Note that many (most?) DSLR lenses are NOT par-focal. That is, they do not hold their focus point when the zoom is changed. Video lenses are typically par-focal, but DSLRs were not originally designed for video, so their lenses were not designed with a feature that wasn't needed at the time.