Here is some research about this topic:
Resolution Independent 2D Cartoon Video Conversion
Video Vectorization via Tetrahedral Remeshing
Video Codec for Classical Cartoon Animations with Hardware Accelerated Playback
I remember reading this last one when I was watching many cartoons and anime online a few years ago. The video resolution you get with many streaming portals, 480p (or even 720p), just doesn't do justice to these nice outline drawings when viewed on full HD/4k displays.
IIRC, the authors of said paper even provided downloads of example video files and their player back then (as a proof of concept), but I cannot find them now.
One problem with rule/computation-based animations (vector graphics;real-time rendered games, flash...) is that it's hard to predict whether the machine playing the video will be able to render the things quickly enough. But you can also have this performance problem with the usual video codecs. Some cheap laptops I owned could not decode full hd/4k videos at the speed necessary for playback...
Still, with vector/computation-based graphics, the problem is worse: There is potentially no limit to the computation power you might need to render a frame. Think about it: CGI movies could be distributed as just the code and assets used to produce them and your machine could render them at any framerate and resolution. The problem is that these movies where not designed for this. Computing a frame might take hours on your machine, not to mention that you probably don't even have enough harddisk space to store all the assets at full resolution which their renderfarm uses.
Computers of today might be able to do Toy Story in real-time though. Also, if you have a high-end gaming rig, the real-time ingame graphics cutscenes are of course also a type of resolution independent video.