In some sense, shooting to a raw format with something like a Red camera or an Alexa does what you want. The camera doesn't do any in-camera image processing to alter the image (except maybe compression), leaving all the data in the original sensor color space.
You can then use your computer to do whatever you want to generate a final image.
ISO can be set in post, for example. Shutter speed, OTOH, still depends on things like the actual sensor parameters.
There's nothing about the CPU in the camera that would likely be the limiting factor.
If you have some control software for the camera that has useful features like allowing a particular frame rate that the camera vendor doesn't expose in the camera's controls, then it doesn't really matter whether that custom software is running on some frankencamera with a bunch of custom soldering to somehow connect your computer directly to the camera internals, or running directly on the camera.