Adobe Flash is designed to work with animating vector graphics and allowing playback of vector animations, but it requires that a user have Flash Player installed. I know there are third party Flash authoring applications out there, but I don't know what, if any, exist on Linux, or if they are still maintained as Flash has been falling out of favor all over the place and is completely unsupported on most mobile platforms.
Outside of that, video is generally a raster format, so you can't work directly with vector graphics without rasterizing them. If you rasterize your PDFs to an image sequence, then many video players and/or encoders can work with an image sequence. A lot will even automatically recognize it as a video if you name them the same with numbering. (Such as "myvideo00000.tga, myvideo00001.tga, myvideo00002.tga, etc.)
As Professor Sparkles pointed out, imagemagick and FFMPEG is one such option, but any combination of a tool that can convert PDFs to images and then a tool that can play or convert a series of images in to a video would work fine. (For example, in a pinch you could print the PDF to an image driver and then use Premiere or something similar to open the image sequence and output a video as well.